Development of the PANVAC-VF vaccine for pancreatic cancer

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006 Feb;5(1):9-19. doi: 10.1586/14760584.5.1.9.


PANVAC-VF is a vaccine regimen composed of a priming dose of recombinant vaccinia virus and booster doses of recombinant fowlpox virus expressing carcinoembryonic antigen, mucin-1 and a triad of costimulatory molecules (TRICOM), which include B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen-3. Vaccination is administered by subcutaneous injection followed by 4 days of local recombinant adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the vaccination site. The vaccine has been developed for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and has now entered a randomized Phase III clinical trial. This review will describe the background of recombinant poxvirus technology for tumor vaccine development, detail the key preclinical studies supporting the regimen, review the clinical trials supporting the current Phase III study, and highlight the key challenges and future obstacles to successful implementation of PANVAC-VF for pancreatic cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / genetics
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Cancer Vaccines / genetics
  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Poxviridae / genetics
  • Poxviridae / immunology
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / genetics
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / therapeutic use


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Synthetic