The yeast mitochondrial outer membrane was isolated and 10 of its major polypeptides were identified (mol. wts. 109, 70, 57, 45, 45, 42, 33, 29, 25 and 14 kd). The membrane has no major polypeptide in common with either mitochondrial inner membrane or rough microsomes. Protease treatment and immunochemical techniques showed that virtually all of the isolated outer membrane vesicles are sealed and display the same surface orientation as in the intact mitochondrion.