The complete nucleotide sequence (155 844 bp) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Bright Yellow 4) chloroplast DNA has been determined. It contains two copies of an identical 25 339 bp inverted repeat, which are separated by a 86 684 bp and a 18 482 bp single-copy region. The genes for 4 different rRNAs, 30 different tRNAs, 39 different proteins and 11 other predicted protein coding genes have been located. Among them, 15 genes contain introns. Blot hybridization revealed that all rRNA and tRNA genes and 27 protein genes so far analysed are transcribed in the chloroplast and that primary transcripts of the split genes hitherto examined are spliced. Five sequences coding for proteins homologous to components of the respiratory-chain NADH dehydrogenase from human mitochondria have been found. The 30 tRNAs predicted from their genes are sufficient to read all codons if the ;two out of three' and ;U:N wobble' mechanisms operate in the chloroplast. Two sequences which autonomously replicate in yeast have also been mapped. The sequence and expression analyses indicate both prokaryotic and eukaryotic features of the chloroplast genes.