Study objectives: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is widely used to assess subjective sleep disturbances in psychiatric, medical, and healthy adult and older adult populations. Yet, validation of the PSQI single-factor scoring has not been carried out.
Design: The PSQI was administered as a self-report questionnaire. Using a cross-validation approach, scores from the PSQI were analyzed with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.
Setting: San Diego, Denver, and Los Angeles community-based clinics.
Participants: Community-dwelling depressed and nondepressed adults older that 60 years of age (N = 417)
Measurements and results: Results yielded a 3-factor scoring model that obtained a measure of perfect fit and was significantly better fitted than either the original single-factor model or a 2-factor model. Components of the 3 factors were characterized by the descriptors sleep efficiency, perceived sleep quality, and daily disturbances.
Conclusions: These findings validate the factor structure of the PSQI and demonstrate that a 3-factor score should be used to assess disturbances in three separate factors of subjective sleep reports.