Polymorphonuclear neutrophils and inflammatory process play a key role in the development of late diabetic vascular complications. Antineutrophil-cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) are considered important serological markers for vasculitis. The aim of study was the assessment of prevalence ANCA in type 1 diabetic patients and evaluation of the relationship between ANCA and diabetic microangiopathy. 94 type 1 diabetic subjects, 47 male and 47 female, aged 30.7 +/- 9.6 years, with mean duration of diabetes 9.5 +/- 6.8 years and HbA1c 7.9 +/- 1.3% were included to this study. ANCA were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence test and the specificity was evaluated by ELISA test. The significantly positive result of ANCA was noticed in 11 subjects (12%), anti-myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) in 9 and anti-proteinase 3 (anti-Pr-3c) in 2 subjects. It was not observed any differences in sex, parameters of metabolic control, duration of diabetes, C-reactive protein levels and diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy between group with ANCA and without ANCA (p>0.05). Moreover, we did not notice relationship between ANCA and the risk of late diabetic complications (retinopathy: OR 1.64; 95% CI 0.46-5.82, p = 0.52 and nephropathy: OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.02-1.35, p = 0.10). The obtained results do not fully confirm hypothesis that ANCA are connected with the development of diabetic microangiopathy.