Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine whether nasopharyngeal decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can reduce peristomal wound infection shortly after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement.
Methods: Of the 84 hospitalized patients referred for PEG, 72 were enrolled in a one-third observation (Group A) and two-thirds in a randomized trial (Groups B and C). Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from a consecutive series of patients prior to PEG insertion. Based upon these results, they were classified into three groups: Group A, MRSA-negative (n = 24), Group B, MRSA-positive, but not eradicated (n = 24), Group C, MRSA-positive and eradicated with intranasal application of mupirocin, arbekacin inhalation, and oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (n = 24). The standard PEG pull-through insertion technique was performed on all 72 patients. All patients received prophylactic and concomitant antibiotics. Infections at the peristomal site were prospectively evaluated and defined as having at least two of the following conditions: peristomal erythema, induration, and purulent discharge. Bacterial culture using purulent discharge was performed.
Results: There was significant difference in the peristomal infection rates among the groups: Group A, 0% (0/0); Group B, 100% (24/24); Group C, 8% (2/24) (p < or = 0.0001). In Group C, nasopharyngeal decolonization of MRSA, which was achieved by the combination of intranasal mupirocin, arbekacin inhalation, and oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim in all 24 patients, significantly reduced peristomal infections. Eighteen (16 in Group B and 2 in Group C) of these 26 infected patients had cellulitis and developed purulent discharge from which MRSA was isolated.
Conclusions: Nasopharyngeal decolonization of MRSA can reduce peristomal infection shortly after the pull-through PEG insertion. MRSA appears to be a major pathogen in PEG peristomal infection while prophylactic and concomitant antibiotics are being used.