Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 regulates mRNA genesis. It shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Its shuttling signal is a 38-residue sequence M9. We studied the nuclear import and export of M9 by mutational analysis. Heterokaryon assay indicated that the 19-residue sequence SNFGPMKGGNFGGRSSGPY (M9 core) is necessary and sufficient for shuttling. Moreover, M9 core mutation revealed that in addition to the hitherto characterized N-terminal motif SNFGPMK, the C-terminal motif PY is crucial for nuclear import as well as for binding to transportin. Key residues of the motifs are conserved in the shuttling signals of hnRNP D and JKTBP.