Role of SCC-S2 in Experimental Metastasis and Modulation of VEGFR-2, MMP-1, and MMP-9 Expression

Mol Ther. 2006 May;13(5):947-55. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.11.020. Epub 2006 Feb 7.


SCC-S2/GG2-1/NDED (approved gene symbol TNFAIP8) is a transcription factor NF-kappaB-inducible, antiapoptotic, and oncogenic molecule. In this study, we examined the role of SCC-S2 in invasion and experimental metastasis. We demonstrate that expression of SCC-S2 cDNA in MDA-MB 435 human breast cancer cells is associated with enhanced invasion in vitro and increased frequency of pulmonary colonization of tumor cells in athymic mice. Systemic treatment of athymic mice with a cationic liposomal formulation of SCC-S2 antisense oligo led to decreased incidence of pulmonary metastasis and inhibition of SCC-S2 expression in vivo. Antisense inhibition of endogenous SCC-S2 expression correlated with decreased expression of VEGF receptor-2 in tumor cells and human lung microvascular endothelial cells and loss of endothelial cell viability. In addition, downregulation of SCC-S2 expression in tumor cells was associated with decreased expression of known metastasis-related molecules MMP-1 and MMP-9. These results demonstrate a novel role for SCC-S2 in tumor progression, involving multiple effectors, and provide a basis for SCC-S2-targeted cancer gene therapy.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Liposomes
  • Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Metalloproteases / genetics
  • Metalloproteases / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense / therapeutic use
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Transplantation, Heterologous
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / genetics
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism*


  • GG2-1 protein, human
  • Liposomes
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • Proteins
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • Metalloproteases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1