The microangioarchitecture of the thalamus and metathalamus in common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied using vascular corrosion cast/stereomicroscope and SEM technique. The arterial supply of the thalamus and metathalamus was found to originate from perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery, the posterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the anterior choroidal artery. These perforating arteries gave rise to numerous bipinnate arterioles which in turn, with decreasing vessel diameters, branched into a non-fenestrated capillary bed. Venous blood from the superficial parts of the thalamus and metathalamus was collected into the thalamocollicular vein, whereas venous blood from internal aspects of the thalamus was conveyed to the internal cerebral vein. Some venous blood from the most rostral part of the thalamus flowed into tributaries of the middle cerebral vein before draining into the cavernous sinus. Further, the thalamic and metathalamic vascular arrangement was found to be of centripetal type. In addition, thalamic arterial anastomosis was rarely observed. Thus, obstruction of thalamic blood supply could easily lead to thalamic infraction.