Liver cancer in Thailand. II. A case-control study of hepatocellular carcinoma

Int J Cancer. 1991 May 30;48(3):329-32. doi: 10.1002/ijc.2910480303.


Potential risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma were investigated in a case-control study among inhabitants of north east Thailand. Sixty-five cases from 3 hospitals, with matched controls, were included. Infection with hepatitis-B virus was the major risk factor-chronic carriers of HB surface antigen had an estimated relative risk of 15.2. Infection with hepatitis-C virus appeared to be rare. No increase in risk was found with recent aflatoxin intake, as estimated by consumption of possibly contaminated foods, or by measuring aflatoxin-albumin adducts in serum. Regular use of alcohol (2 or more glasses of spirits per week) was associated with a non-significant elevation in risk (o.r. = 3.4, 95% c.i. 0.8-14.6), but the number of regular drinkers in the population was small. The meaning of an apparent protection conferred by certain food items is uncertain, but a possible role of betel nut in the aetiology deserves further investigation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Areca
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Demography
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / analysis
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Thailand


  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens