ARI-1, an RBR family ubiquitin-ligase, functions with UBC-18 to regulate pharyngeal development in C. elegans

Dev Biol. 2006 Mar 15;291(2):239-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.11.045. Epub 2006 Feb 7.


The LIN-35 retinoblastoma protein homolog and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC-18 function redundantly to control an early step of pharyngeal morphogenesis in C. elegans. In order to identify ubiquitin-ligases acting downstream of UBC-18, we carried out a two-hybrid screen using UBC-18 as the bait molecule. Our screen identified three putative ubiquitin-ligases, one of which, ARI-1, showed genetic interactions leading to defective pharyngeal development that were identical to that previously observed for UBC-18. ARI-1 is a member of the RBR family of ubiquitin-ligases and contains a C-terminal motif that places it within the highly conserved Ariadne subfamily of RBR ligases. Our analyses indicate that ARI-1 is the principal Ariadne family member in C. elegans that is involved in the control of pharyngeal development with UBC-18. Using GFP reporters, we find that ARI-1 is expressed dynamically in a wide range of tissues including muscles and neurons during embryonic and postembryonic development. We also provide evidence that dsRNA species containing 14 or fewer base pairs of contiguous identity with closely related mRNAs are sufficient to mediate off-target silencing in C. elegans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / embryology*
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / physiology*
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / physiology*
  • Ligases / physiology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Morphogenesis
  • Pharynx / embryology*
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases


  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • ari-1 protein, C elegans
  • Ligases
  • Ubc-18 protein, C elegans