In the final stages of ovarian follicular development, the mouse oocyte remains arrested in the first meiotic prophase, and cAMP-stimulated PKA plays an essential role in this arrest. After the LH surge, a decrease in cAMP and PKA activity in the oocyte initiates an irreversible maturation process that culminates in a second arrest at metaphase II prior to fertilization. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) mediate the intracellular localization of PKA and control the specificity and kinetics of substrate phosphorylation. Several AKAPs have been identified in oocytes including one at 140 kDa that we now identify as a product of the Akap1 gene. We show that PKA interaction with AKAPs is essential for two sequential steps in the maturation process: the initial maintenance of meiotic arrest and the subsequent irreversible progression to the polar body extruded stage. A peptide inhibitor (HT31) that disrupts AKAP/PKA interactions stimulates oocyte maturation in the continued presence of high cAMP. However, during the early minutes of maturation, type II PKA moves from cytoplasmic sites to the mitochondria, where it associates with AKAP1, and this is shown to be essential for maturation to continue irreversibly.