Biodegradation of 3-nitrotyrosine by Burkholderia sp. strain JS165 and Variovorax paradoxus JS171

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Feb;72(2):1040-4. doi: 10.1128/AEM.72.2.1040-1044.2006.


The cascade of reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide causes modification of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in a wide range of organisms. 3-Nitrotyrosine is one of the most common products of the action of reactive nitrogen species on proteins. Although a great deal is known about the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, the subsequent metabolism of this compound is a mystery. Variovorax paradoxus JS171 and Burkholderia sp. strain JS165 were isolated from soil slurries when 3-nitrotyrosine was provided as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. During growth on 3-nitrotyrosine stoichiometric amounts of nitrite were released along with approximately one-half of the theoretically available ammonia. The catabolic pathway involving oxidative denitration is distinct from the pathway for tyrosine metabolism. The facile isolation and the specific, regulated pathway for 3-nitrotyrosine degradation in natural ecosystems suggest that there is a significant flux of 3-nitrotyrosine in such environments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid / metabolism
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Burkholderia / genetics
  • Burkholderia / isolation & purification
  • Burkholderia / metabolism*
  • Comamonadaceae / genetics
  • Comamonadaceae / isolation & purification
  • Comamonadaceae / metabolism*
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nitrophenols / metabolism
  • Phenylacetates / metabolism
  • RNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Soil Microbiology
  • Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Tyrosine / metabolism


  • Nitrophenols
  • Phenylacetates
  • RNA, Bacterial
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid
  • 4-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl acetic acid
  • 3-nitrotyrosine
  • Tyrosine

Associated data

  • GENBANK/DQ285572
  • GENBANK/DQ285573