Catabolism of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose in Sinorhizobium morelense S-30.7.5: discovery, characterization, and overexpression of a new 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose reductase and its application in sugar analysis and rare sugar synthesis

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Feb;72(2):1248-57. doi: 10.1128/AEM.72.2.1248-1257.2006.


The bacterium Sinorhizobium morelense S-30.7.5 was isolated by a microbial screening using the sugar 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (AF) as the sole carbon source. This strain metabolized AF by a novel pathway involving its reduction to 1,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (AM) and the further conversion of AM to D-mannose by C-1 oxygenation. Growth studies showed that the AF metabolizing capability is not confined to S. morelense S-30.7.5 but is a more common feature among the Rhizobiaceae. The AF reducing enzyme was purified and characterized as a new NADPH-dependent monomeric reductase (AFR, EC 1.1.1.-) of 35.1 kDa. It catalyzed the stereoselective reduction of AF to AM and also the conversion of a number of 2-keto aldoses (osones) to the corresponding manno-configurated aldoses. In contrast, common aldoses and ketoses, as well as nonsugar aldehydes and ketones, were not reduced. A database search using the N-terminal AFR sequence retrieved a putative 35-kDa oxidoreductase encoded by the open reading frame Smc04400 localized on the chromosome of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Based on sequence information for this locus, the afr gene was cloned from S. morelense S-30.7.5 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In addition to the oxidoreductase of S. meliloti 1021, AFR showed high sequence similarities to putative oxidoreductases of Mesorhizobium loti, Brucella suis, and B. melitensis but not to any oxidoreductase with known functions. AFR could be assigned to the GFO/IDH/MocA family on the basis of highly conserved common structural features. His6-tagged AFR was used to demonstrate the utility of this enzyme for AF analysis and synthesis of AM, as well as related derivatives.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Carbohydrates / analysis
  • Carbohydrates / biosynthesis
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Fructose / analogs & derivatives*
  • Fructose / metabolism
  • Gene Expression
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Molecular Weight
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Rhizobiaceae / enzymology
  • Rhizobiaceae / genetics
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sinorhizobium / enzymology
  • Sinorhizobium / genetics
  • Sinorhizobium / growth & development
  • Sinorhizobium / metabolism*
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases / chemistry
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases / genetics
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases / metabolism*


  • Carbohydrates
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Fructose
  • 1,5-anhydrofructose
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases
  • 1,5-anhydro-fructose reductase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/DQ140416
  • GENBANK/DQ140417