Human adenoviruses are ubiquitous lytic DNA viruses that can be divided into 51 different serotypes, grouped from A to F on the basis of genome size, composition, homology, and organization. Adenovirus infections, although frequent, are rarely fatal in immunocompetent individuals, due to potent innate and adaptive immune responses. By contrast, adenoviruses are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed individuals, for whom there are limited treatment options. Since antiviral drugs have variable efficacy in the treatment of severe adenovirus disease, iatrogenic reconstitution with in vitro expanded virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is an attractive option for prophylaxis and treatment, particularly because the endogenous recovery of adenovirus-specific T cells has proved important in controlling infection in vivo. Thus, we have characterized human T-cell responses to adenovirus in vitro and explored the potential of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy as a prophylactic or therapeutic strategy for adenovirus infections posttransplant.