Monocytes recruited to tissues mediate defense against microbes or contribute to inflammatory diseases. Regulation of the number of circulating monocytes thus has implications for disease pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms controlling monocyte emigration from the bone marrow niche where they are generated remain undefined. We demonstrate here that the chemokine receptor CCR2 was required for emigration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes from bone marrow. Ccr2(-/-) mice had fewer circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes and, after infection with Listeria monocytogenes, accumulated activated monocytes in bone marrow. In blood, Ccr2(-/-) monocytes could traffic to sites of infection, demonstrating that CCR2 is not required for migration from the circulation into tissues. Thus, CCR2-mediated signals in bone marrow determine the frequency of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the circulation.