Sorption of chlorophenoxy propionic acids by organoclay complexes

Environ Toxicol. 2006 Feb;21(1):71-9. doi: 10.1002/tox.20158.


The organoclays Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-1, Mon), W. R. Grace vermiculite (Ver), and Tung-Wei (Tw) soil montmorillonite were prepared to sorb or remove chlorophenoxy propionic acids (CPA) pollutants such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acid (2,4-DP), 2,4,6-tri chlorophenoxy acid (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenoxy propionic acid (PCP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of organoclays that have sorbed three types of CPA and to assess the applicability to basaltic-developed iron-rich calcareous soil. This type of soil contains high amounts of montmorillonite. The mean-layer charge per formula unit of Mon, Ver, and Tw clays, characterized by the alkylammonium method, was 0.27, 0.70, and 0.52 mol(c)/O(10)(OH)(2), respectively. The sorption isotherms of 2,4-DP, 2,4,6-TCP, and PCP sorbed by hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium (HDTMA organoclay, 150% cation-exchange capacity) were evaluated. The data on sorption of CPAs fit well with the Freundlich isotherm equation. In general, the sorption of three types of CPA by the organoclays showed a linear relationship, with a high correlation coefficient (r > 0.935). The K(f) value of PCP was the same as that of 2,4,6-TCP sorbed by the organoclays and was higher than that of 2,4-DP. However, the 1/n(f) values of the three CPAs sorbed by the organoclays did not show significant differences. In general, maximum CPA sorption occurred at a pH of approximately 3, but very significant differences were observed for the 2,4,6-TCP and PCP sorbed by the organoclays. However, there was no significant difference in pH for 2,4-DP sorption. This should be related to the solubility and pKa of each CPA. The experimental results showed that solubility of 2,4-DP, 2,4,6-TCP, and PCP is a function of pH, ionic strength, and temperature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Aluminum Silicates / chemistry*
  • Bentonite / chemistry*
  • Herbicides / chemistry*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Ion Exchange
  • Propionates / chemistry*
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / chemistry*
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Solubility
  • Water Pollution / prevention & control


  • Aluminum Silicates
  • Herbicides
  • Propionates
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Bentonite
  • vermiculite