Impairment of IGF-I gene splicing and MGF expression associated with muscle wasting

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Mar;38(3):481-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2005.10.001.


The characterisation of a local tissue repair factor (mechano growth factor, MGF) that is produced by exercised and/or damaged muscle by differential splicing of the IGF-I gene provides understanding of how muscle is maintained in the young normal individual. Mechano growth factor, or MGF, is different to the systemic IGF-I as it has an insert of 49 base pairs in exon 5 that introduces a reading frame shift resulting in a C terminal peptide with unique properties. Muscle is a post-mitotic tissue and as cell replacement is not a means of tissue repair there has to be an efficient local repair mechanism otherwise the damaged cells undergo cell death. The extra nuclei for muscle repair and hypertrophy are provided by the muscle satellite (stem) cells. The pool of these stem cells is apparently replenished by the action of MGF, which is produced as a pulse following a mechanical challenge. Unfortunately, the production of MGF is deficient in certain diseases such as in the muscular dystrophies in which the mechanotransduction mechanism, which may involve the dystrophin complex, is defective. In elderly muscles, decreased levels of growth hormone apparently mean that there is less primary RNA transcript of the IGF-I gene to be spliced towards MGF. Consequently, there is an increasing inability to maintain muscle mass during ageing. Delivery of MGF and cDNA or peptide produces marked increases in the strength of normal as well as diseased muscle and, therefore, MGF has considerable potential as a generic means of treating muscle cachexia.

Publication types

  • Corrected and Republished Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / physiology
  • Alternative Splicing*
  • Animals
  • Cachexia / metabolism
  • Cachexia / physiopathology
  • Exercise
  • Growth Substances / genetics
  • Growth Substances / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism
  • Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology
  • Muscular Atrophy* / metabolism
  • Muscular Atrophy* / physiopathology
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism


  • Growth Substances
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I