We have analyzed the distribution and patterns of the genetic diversity of eight Alu loci (ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25, NBC27, NBC102, NBC148, and NBC182) in 1,049 individuals representing 16 populations of the Volga-Ural region (Bashkirs, Tatars, Komis, Maris, Mordvins, and Udmurts), Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs), the North Caucasus (Karachays, Kumyks, Kuban Nogays, and Karanogays), and Central South Siberia (Yakuts, Kalmyks and Evenks). Geographic divide between Europe and Asia, e.g. the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea, can also be considered as a genetic boundary. The data indicates that the populations of the two boundary regions between Europe and Asia, the Volga-Ural region of Russia, and populations of the North Caucasus are more similar to European than to Asian populations. Finally, Siberian and Central Asian populations are genetically closely related to each other.