Integrated control of lower urinary tract--clinical perspective

Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;147 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S14-24. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706629.


The neural mechanisms that determine social bladder control are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the role played by sensation in the process. Much has been learnt about the neural control of the bladder from studying patients with neurological disease and those disorders that are known to disrupt bladder storage are described. Possible approaches to treatment of the resulting incontinence are reviewed and it is acknowledged that in the future, the optimal treatment for incontinence may be determined by its precise underlying pathophysiology in each instance, for example, suprapontine causes requiring different medication to spinal causes. Although the main emphasis of urological research and development so far has been the treatment of incontinence, effective therapy for other bladder disorders such an impaired emptying or bladder pain could have an important impact on the bladder symptoms of many patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Central Nervous System / physiopathology
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / complications
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / physiopathology
  • Cystitis, Interstitial / etiology
  • Cystitis, Interstitial / physiopathology*
  • Cystitis, Interstitial / therapy
  • Dementia / complications
  • Dementia / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Multiple System Atrophy / complications
  • Multiple System Atrophy / physiopathology
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Muscle, Skeletal / innervation
  • Parkinson Disease / complications
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology
  • Spinal Cord Diseases / complications
  • Spinal Cord Diseases / physiopathology
  • Urethra / innervation
  • Urinary Bladder / innervation*
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / etiology
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / physiopathology*
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / therapy
  • Urinary Bladder, Overactive / etiology
  • Urinary Bladder, Overactive / physiopathology*
  • Urinary Bladder, Overactive / therapy
  • Urinary Incontinence, Stress / physiopathology
  • Urinary Incontinence, Stress / therapy
  • Urination*