Rearrangement of the tubulin and actin cytoskeleton during programmed cell death in Drosophila salivary glands

Cell Death Differ. 1997 Feb;4(2):140-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.cdd.4400216.


During larva-to-pupa metamorphosis Drosophila salivary glands undergo programmed cell death by autophagocytosis. Although ultrastructure of Drosophila salivary glands has been extensively studied in the past, little is known about mechanism of programmed cell death, especially the role of the cytoskeleton. In this paper we describe changes in microtubule and actin filament network compared to the progress of DNA fragmentation and redistribution of acid phosphatase. In feeding and wandering larvae microtubules and actin filaments form regular networks localized mostly along the plasma membrane. The first major rearrangement of microtubules and actin filaments occurred when larvae everted spiracles and the glands shifted their secretion from saliva to mucoprotein glue (stage L1). Microtubule cytoskeleton became denser and actin filaments concentrated along cell boundaries. At the same time nuclei flattened and migrated into the microtubule-rich layer near the basal membrane. In late prepupae (8-10 h after P1) the microtubule network became fainter, and actin filaments appeared frequently deeper in cytoplasm, gradually concentrating around nuclei. Simultaneously large patches of acid phosphatase activity surrounded nuclei and shortly thereafter chromosomal DNA began to fragment. During the final collapse of the gland (early pupae, 13.5 h after formation of white puparium) cellular fragments and autophagic vacuoles contained a continuous F-actin lining and the microtubule network displayed signs of extensive degradation. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Drosophila salivary glands, extensive autophagic activities target nuclei for degradation; that this process occurs late in the course of programmed cell death; and that it directly involves cytoskeletal structures which are altered far earlier during the course of cell death.