The anti-apoptotic activities of two baculovirus IAPs, OpIAP and CpIAP, were directly compared with that of two Drosophila IAPs, DIAP1 and DIAP2, in the same insect cell line, SF-21 cells. Like OpIAP and CpIAP, DIAP1 inhibited actinomycin D-induced apoptosis and apoptosis induced by Doom. Removal of the RING finger of DIAP1 reduced but did not eliminate its anti-apoptotic activity. DIAP2 was unable to inhibit actinomycin-D induced apoptosis but was able to partially inhibit Doom-induced apoptosis. The baculoviral BIR and RING finger regions, when separated, were unable to block apoptosis induced by actinomycin D or Doom. Instead, the BIR regions of OpIAP and CpIAP as well as the RING finger regions of CpIAP and DIAP1 induced apoptosis. Thus, there were significant differences in the manner in which the different domains of the viral and cellular homologues of IAPs interacted with the components of the pathways regulating apoptosis in SF-21 cells.