Rett syndrome (RTT) is a debilitating neurological condition associated with mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, where apparently normal development is seen prior to the onset of cognitive and motor deterioration at 6-18 months of life. A targeted deletion of the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) coding region and disruption of mRNA splicing was introduced in the mouse, resulting in a complete loss of Mecp2 transcripts and protein. Postnatal comparison of XO and XY mutant Mecp2 allele-containing null mice revealed similar effects on mouse growth and viability, suggesting that phenotypic manifestations are not modulated by the Y-chromosome. Further assessment of Mecp2-null XY mice highlighted cerebellar and hippocampal/amygdala-based learning deficits in addition to reduced motor dexterity and decreased anxiety levels. Brain tissues containing the hippocampal formation of XY Mecp2-null mice also displayed significant changes in genetic activity, which are related to the severity of the mutant phenotype.