Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products are derived from pooled human plasma and have been used for the treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders for more than 24 years. Shortly after their introduction, IVIG products were also found to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Over the past 2 decades, the list of diseases where IVIG has a demonstrable beneficial effect has grown rapidly. These include Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, dermatomyositis and demyelinating polyneuropathy. Recently, we have described a beneficial effect on the reduction of anti-HLA antibodies with subsequent improvement in transplantation of highly HLA-sensitized patients as well as a potent anti-inflammatory effect that is beneficial in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). These advancements have enabled transplantation of patients previously considered untransplantable. These studies and relevant mechanism(s) of action will be discussed here.