Management of home parenteral support in adult benign but chronic intestinal failure patients requires a nutrition support team using disease-specific pathways. Education of patients to ensure they self manage home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is cornerstone to obtain minimal rate of technical complications and improvement in quality of life. Nutritive mixtures, compounded by pharmacists in single "all-in-one" bags, must be tailored according to the nutritional and intestinal status of individual patients with definition of macronutrients and water-electrolyte needs, respectively. Each PN cycle should be complete in essential nutrients to be nutritionally efficient and should have sufficient amounts of amino acids, dextrose, water, minerals, and micronutrients to avoid deficiency. When the nutritional goal is achieved, a minimum number of PN cycles per week should be implemented, guided ideally by digestive balance(s) (In-Out) of macronutrients and minerals of individual patients. Indeed, HPN is, in most cases, a complementary nonexclusive mode of nutritional support. In short gut patients--who represent 75% of chronic intestinal failure patients--encouraging enteral feeding decrease PN delivery and the risk of metabolic liver disease associated with HPN. In short gut patients with no severe renal impairment, blood citrulline dosage, in association with the remnant anatomy, is a tool to delineate transient from permanent intestinal failure. The latter group includes candidates for trophic gut factors and rehabilitative or reconstructive surgery, including intestinal transplantation. Thus, outcome improvement for intestinal failure patients needs intestinal failure teams having expertise in all medical and surgical aspects of this field.