Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an important hematopoietic growth factor and immune modulator. GM-CSF also has profound effects on the functional activities of various circulating leukocytes. It is produced by a variety of cell types including T cells, macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts upon receiving immune stimuli. Although GM-CSF is produced locally, it can act in a paracrine fashion to recruit circulating neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes to enhance their functions in host defense. Recent intensive investigations are centered on the application of GM-CSF as an immune adjuvant for its ability to increase dendritic cell (DC) maturation and function as well as macrophage activity. It is used clinically to treat neutropenia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, in AIDS patients during therapy, and in patients after bone marrow transplantation. Interestingly, the hematopoietic system of GM-CSF-deficient mice appears to be normal; the most significant changes are in some specific T cell responses. Although molecular cloning of GM-CSF was carried out using cDNA library of T cells and it is well known that the T cells produce GM-CSF after activation, there is a lack of systematic investigation of this cytokine in production by T cells and its effect on T cell function. In this article, we will focus mainly on the immunobiology of GM-CSF in T cells.