Background: : The efficacy of the combination of voriconazole and caspofungin when used as primary therapy for invasive aspergillosis in organ transplant recipients has not been defined.
Methods: : Transplant recipients who received voriconazole and caspofungin (n=40) as primary therapy for invasive aspergillosis (proven or probable) in a prospective multicenter study between 2003 and 2005 were compared to a control group comprising a cohort of consecutive transplant recipients between 1999 and 2002 who had received a lipid formulation of AmB as primary therapy (n=47). In vitro antifungal testing of Aspergillus isolates to combination therapy was correlated with clinical outcome.
Results: : Survival at 90 days was 67.5% (27/40) in the cases, and 51% (24/47) in the control group (HR 0.58, 95% CI, 0.30-1.14, P=0.117). However, in transplant recipients with renal failure (adjusted HR 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.85, P=0.022), and in those with A. fumigatus infection (adjusted HR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.84, P=0.019), combination therapy was independently associated with an improved 90-day survival in multivariate analysis. No correlation was found between in vitro antifungal interactions of the Aspergillus isolates to the combination of voriconazole and caspofungin and clinical outcome.
Conclusions: : Combination of voriconazole and caspofungin might be considered preferable therapy for subsets of organ transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis, such as those with renal failure or A. fumigatus infection.