Stone analysis

Urol Res. 2006 Apr;34(2):146-50. doi: 10.1007/s00240-005-0028-y. Epub 2006 Feb 14.


The definition and the frequencies of the components of urinary stones are presented on the basis of more than 110,000 analyses. The stone morphologies are described. The methods of stone analysis X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and polarization microscopy and the most recent developments are presented. The benefits and disadvantages of different methods are compared. The results of ring trials show that the X-ray diffraction method is the best method with regard to correctness.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry*
  • Microscopy, Polarization
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
  • X-Ray Diffraction