Validation of the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination in a rural community in Spain

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;21(3):239-45. doi: 10.1002/gps.1450.


Background: The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a brief cognitive test battery designed to detect and differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Translations of this instrument into French and Malayalam have been recently published

Objective: To adapt and validate the ACE into Spanish in a rural population of low-educational level.

Subjects: A clinical group, composed of 70 patients affected by dementia and 25 patients with memory complaints without dementia, was compared with 72 controls matched for gender, age and educational level

Method: The clinical group was studied with standard neuropsychological instruments, all patients underwent neuroimaging [Computerized Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) in all cases of suspected FTD], as well as routine neurological examination. Both groups were studied with the ACE and Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). Sensitivity, specificity, area under curve, reliability and Verbal-Language/ Orientation-Memory (VLOM) ratio were calculated. Subsequently, the sample was stratified regarding educational level in two groups. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were calculated for these conditions. Different cut-off points were calculated addressing educational level.

Results: ROC curves demonstrated the superiority of the ACE in the sub sample of patients that finished school at over 14 years old. VLOM ratio confirmed its usefulness for differential diagnosis between AD and FTD CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the ACE is a useful instrument for dementia diagnosis. In our sample VLOM ratio results were useful for differential diagnosis between AD and FTD. Different cut-off points must be used for different educational levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Dementia / diagnosis*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Frontal Lobe
  • Geriatric Assessment
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Rural Health
  • Spain