Omeprazole and bafilomycin, two proton pump inhibitors: differentiation of their effects on gastric, kidney and bone H(+)-translocating ATPases

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Jun 18;1065(2):261-8. doi: 10.1016/0005-2736(91)90238-4.


The effects of omeprazole and bafilomycin on processes dependent on two different types of H(+)-translocating ATPases were compared. A H(+)-ATPase of the E1E2-type, the H+,K(+)-ATPase, was purified from gastric mucosa. Vacuolar type H(+)-ATPases were prepared both from kidney medulla and from osteoclast-containing medullary bone. H+,K(+)-ATPase-mediated proton transport in gastric vesicles was selectively inhibited by omeprazole with a high potency (inhibitory concentrations greater than or equal to 3 microM) and in time- and pH-dependent manner. This result is consistent with the mechanism of action of omeprazole, which is dependent on acid-induced transformation of the drug into an active inhibitor reacting with luminally accessible sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme. Accordingly, the presence of the membrane-impermeable mercaptane glutathione did not affect the inhibitory action of omeprazole on the H+,K(+)-ATPase. Proton transport in kidney- and bone-derived membrane vesicles was also inhibited by omeprazole, but with a lower potency (inhibitory concentrations greater than or equal to 100 microM). Furthermore, the presence of glutathione totally abolished this inhibition, indicating that cytosolic, rather than luminal, SH-groups of the respective vacuolar H(+)-ATPase were interacting with omeprazole at high concentrations. In line with these results, it was found that omeprazole was much more potent in inhibiting acid production in isolated gastric glands (IC50 approximately 0.25 microM) than in inhibiting osteoclast-mediated 45Ca-release in isolated mouse calvaria (IC50 approximately 200 microM). Bafilomycin, on the other hand, was much more effective in inhibiting proton transport mediated by the vacuolar H(+)-ATPases in the kidney- and bone-derived membrane vesicles (IC50 approximately 2 nM) than in inhibiting H+,K(+)-ATPase-mediated proton transport in gastric membrane vesicles (IC50 approximately 50 microM). Thus, approximately 10(4) times higher concentrations of bafilomycin were needed to inhibit the H+,K(+)-ATPase to the same extent as the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. A similar difference in potency of bafilomycin was found when its inhibitory effect was determined in isolated mouse calvaria (IC50 approximately 2.5 nM) and in isolated gastric glands (IC50 approximately 5 microM). Hence, omeprazole was found to be a specific inhibitor of the H+,K(+)-ATPase under physiological conditions, i.e. in the presence of glutathione, while bafilomycin was found to be selective towards vacuolar H(+)-ATPases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biological Transport, Active / drug effects
  • Bone and Bones / drug effects
  • Bone and Bones / enzymology*
  • Cell Membrane / enzymology
  • Gastric Mucosa / drug effects
  • Gastric Mucosa / enzymology*
  • Glutathione / pharmacology
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kidney Medulla / drug effects
  • Kidney Medulla / enzymology*
  • Kinetics
  • Macrolides*
  • Mice
  • Omeprazole / pharmacology*
  • Osteoclasts / enzymology
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Protons
  • Swine
  • Vacuoles / enzymology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Macrolides
  • Protons
  • bafilomycin A1
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases
  • Glutathione
  • Omeprazole