In mammals, the CELF/Bruno-like family of RNA-binding proteins contains six members. The founder members of the family are the CUG-BP1 (CELF1) and ETR-3 (CELF2) proteins. Four other members have been identified mainly by sequence similarity. The founder members were cloned or identified in a number of laboratories which has lead to a profusion of names and two separate naming systems. In addition, different members of the CELF/Bruno-like protein family have been shown to be implicated in two major post-transcriptional regulatory processes, namely the alternative splicing and the control of translation and stability of target mRNAs. Several studies have indicated a certain functional redundancy between the CELF proteins in fulfilling these functions. The multiplicity of gene names and the eventual functional redundancy is a source of potential confusion in published work. We present here a synthetic picture of the present situation and, where possible, models are proposed that can account for the data obtained in the various laboratories with different biological models. Furthermore, we have highlighted some important questions that still need to be resolved.