Concurrent use of methamphetamine, MDMA, LSD, ketamine, GHB, and flunitrazepam among American youths

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Sep 1;84(1):102-13. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.01.002. Epub 2006 Feb 17.


Background: The magnitude and the characteristics of the use of methamphetamine, MDMA (Ecstasy), LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide), ketamine, GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate), and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) were examined in a probability sample of the U.S. civilian population that included multiethnic urban, suburban, and rural youths aged 16-23 (N=19,084).

Methods: Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the characteristics associated with the use of each of these drugs and of multiple drugs.

Results: Approximately 20% of youths aged 16-23 reported having ever used one or more of these drugs. Less than 1% of club drug users used club drugs only, and 82% of them had ever used three or more drug classes. Females were more likely than males to report using multiple club drugs. Recent users of methamphetamine were most likely to be females and adolescents aged 16 or 17. Recent users of MDMA tended to be young adults aged 18-21 and residents of metropolitan areas. Most recent users of LSD were adolescents aged 16-19 and those in low-income families. Ketamine users were primarily employed youths. Staying in school and getting married were associated with decreased odds of club drug use. Club drug use was highly associated with the presence of criminal behaviors and recent alcohol abuse or dependence.

Conclusions: Adolescents are more likely than young adults to use multiple drugs. The clustering of multidrug use and alcohol use disorder is a cause of concern.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Data Collection
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Flunitrazepam*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Ketamine*
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide*
  • Male
  • Methamphetamine*
  • N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine*
  • Prevalence
  • Sodium Oxybate*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*


  • Methamphetamine
  • Flunitrazepam
  • Ketamine
  • Sodium Oxybate
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
  • N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine