Inflammation plays a pivotal role in all stages of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome are typified by low-grade inflammation. Intervention trials convincingly demonstrate that weight loss reduces biomarkers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. Limited studies have shown that certain dietary factors; oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and antioxidants RRR-alpha-alpha tocopherol, reduce biomarkers of inflammation. Most of the studies with fish oil supplementation have shown null effects, and conflicting results have been reported with saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, and soy intake. Much further research is needed to define the role of individual dietary factors on the biomarkers of inflammation and the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of weight loss.