We previously identified a novel p53 target gene, RTVP-1, that possesses unique cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activities which make it potentially useful for cancer gene therapy. To test the therapeutic potential of RTVP-1 in a gene-modified tumor cell-based vaccine model, we used an adenoviral vector capable of efficient transduction and expression of RTVP-1 (AdRTVP-1), together with a highly metastatic mouse prostate cancer cell line (178-2 BMA). A vaccine was prepared with 178-2 BMA cells transduced with AdRTVP-1 or a control adenoviral vector expressing beta-galactosidase (Adbetagal). After irradiation of the cells, syngeneic 129/Sv mice were vaccinated three times at weekly intervals. After 3 weeks, they were challenged with orthotopic 178-2 BMA cells. After 21 days, fewer than 60% of the RTVP-1-cell-vaccinated mice developed tumors compared to 100% of the control mice. The RTVP-1-cell vaccine significantly reduced primary tumor wet weight compared with control Adbetagal-cell vaccine (P<0.0001 at 7 and 14 days). Experimental metastasis to lung was also significantly reduced (P=0.0377), and survival significantly increased (P=0.0002). In addition, significantly increased NK and CTL activities were demonstrated in the AdRTVP-1-cell-vaccinated mice. These findings indicate that RTVP-1 gene-modified cell-based vaccines may be useful in the prevention of recurrent prostate cancer.