Implantation involves an intricate discourse between the embryo and uterus and is a gateway to further embryonic development. Synchronizing embryonic development until the blastocyst stage with the uterine differentiation that takes place to produce the receptive state is crucial to successful implantation, and therefore to pregnancy outcome. Although implantation involves the interplay of numerous signalling molecules, the hierarchical instructions that coordinate the embryo-uterine dialogue are not well understood. This review highlights our knowledge about the molecular development of preimplantation and implantation and the future challenges of the field. A better understanding of periimplantation biology could alleviate female infertility and help to develop novel contraceptives.