A network governing DNA integrity was identified in yeast by a global genetic analysis of synthetic fitness or lethality defect (SFL) interactions. Within this network, 16 functional modules or minipathways were defined based on patterns of global SFL interactions. Modules or genes involved in DNA replication, DNA-replication checkpoint (DRC) signaling, and oxidative stress response were identified as the major guardians against lethal spontaneous DNA damage, efficient repair of which requires the functions of the DNA-damage checkpoint signaling and multiple DNA-repair pathways. This genome-wide genetic interaction network also identified novel components (DIA2, NPT1, HST3, HST4, and the CSM1 module) that potentially contribute to mitotic DNA replication and genomic stability and revealed novel functions of well-studied genes (the CTF18 module) in DRC signaling. This network will guide more detailed characterization of mechanisms governing DNA integrity in yeast and other organisms.