Forty-five children with mathematics learning disabilities, with and without comorbid reading disabilities, were compared to 45 normally achieving peers in tasks assessing basic numerical skills. Children with mathematics disabilities were only impaired when comparing Arabic digits (i.e., symbolic number magnitude) but not when comparing collections (i.e., non-symbolic number magnitude). Moreover, they automatically processed number magnitude when comparing the physical size of Arabic digits in an Stroop paradigm adapted for processing speed differences. Finally, no evidence was found for differential patterns of performance between MD and MD/RD children in these tasks. These findings suggest that children with mathematics learning disabilities have difficulty in accessing number magnitude from symbols rather than in processing numerosity per se.