Protein repertoire of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages

Virus Res. 2006 Apr;117(1):68-80. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2006.01.015. Epub 2006 Feb 21.


The complexity and diversity of phage gene sets, which are produced by rapid evolution of phage genomes and rampant gene exchanges among phages, hamper the efforts to decipher the evolutionary relationships between individual phage proteins and reconstruct the complete set of evolutionary events leading to the known phages. To start unraveling the natural history of phages, we built the phage orthologous groups (POGs), a natural system of phage protein families that includes 6378 genes from 164 complete genome sequences of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages. Phage proteomes have high POG coverage: on average, 39 genes per phage genome belong to POGs, which is close to half of all genes in most phages. In an agreement with the notion of phage role in horizontal gene transfer, we see many cases of likely gene exchange between phages and their microbial hosts. At the same time, about 80% of all POGs are highly specific to phage genomes and are not commonly found in microbial genomes, indicating coherence and large degree of evolutionary independence of phage gene sets. The information on orthologous genes is essential for evolutionary classification of known bacteriophages and for reconstruction of ancestral phage genomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriophages / genetics*
  • DNA / genetics*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Gene Transfer, Horizontal
  • Genome, Viral
  • Viral Proteins / genetics*


  • Viral Proteins
  • DNA