Hepatocellular carcinoma. A worldwide problem and the major risk factors

Dig Dis Sci. 1991 Jul;36(7):962-72. doi: 10.1007/BF01297149.


Male sex, age, cirrhosis, and HBsAg are the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The geographic distribution of HCC is highly uneven, such that three distinct incidence areas are recognized. To clarify the reason(s) for this geographic variability of HCC, the risk factors in each incidence area were assessed. In parallel with the geographic distribution of HCC, HBsAg prevalence was highest in both HCC patients and in general population in Africa and Asia, where mothers of HCC patients are frequently HBsAg-positive, suggesting that hepatitis B virus hyperendemicity and perinatal infection account for the high HCC incidence in these areas. Cirrhosis, which is found on autopsy in 80% of the cases of HCC patients worldwide, is the most prevalent risk factor for HCC in areas where hepatitis B virus infection is less common. However, HBsAg carriage adds to the HCC risk carried by cirrhosis and explains the higher incidence of HCC in cirrhotics from Africa and Asia as well as elsewhere. Available data suggest that chronic HCV infection is a risk factor for cirrhosis and HCC. HBV vaccination should decrease HCC incidence rates worldwide; however, HCC prevention in regions where HBsAg carriage is infrequent may also require prevention of the other causes of cirrhosis in order for HCC rates to decline.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology
  • Female
  • Global Health*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • Male
  • Risk Factors