Objectives: To examine longitudinal changes in consumption of 6 types of beverages (milk, diet and regular soda, fruit juice, fruit-flavored drinks, and coffee/tea) in girls and determine the relationship between beverage intake, body mass index (BMI), and nutrient intake.
Study design: Three-day food diaries were included from black (1210) and white (1161) girls who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Diaries were recorded during annual visits beginning at ages 9 or 10 years until age 19 years. Mixed models estimated the association of (1) visit and race with average daily consumption of beverages and (2) beverage intake with BMI and average daily intake of total calories, sucrose, fructose, total sugars, and calcium.
Results: For girls of both races, milk consumption decreased and soda consumption increased with time. Changes in beverage intake with time varied by race for all beverages except fruit juice. For all beverage categories, consumption was associated with caloric intake. Of all beverages, increasing soda consumption predicted the greatest increase of BMI and the lowest increase in calcium intake.
Conclusions: Public health efforts are needed to help adolescents gain access to and choose healthful beverages and decrease intake of beverages of minimal nutritional value.