The physiological role of proteins phosphorylated on serine/threonine/tyrosine (Ser/Thr/Tyr) residues or the identity of the corresponding kinases and phosphatases is generally poorly understood in bacteria. As a first step in analysing the importance of such phosphorylation, we sought to establish the nature of the Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome in Bacillus subtilis, using in vivo labelling with [(32)P]-orthophosphate, one-unit pH 2-DE, combined with MS. Highly reproducible 2-D profiles of phosphoproteins were obtained with early stationary-phase cells. The 2-D profiles contained at least 80 clearly labelled spots in the pH range 4-7. Forty-six spots were analysed by MS (confirmed in most cases by LC-MS/MS), identifying a total of 29 different proteins, with 19 identified for the first time as bacterial phosphoproteins. These phosphoproteins are implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes, including carbon and energy metabolism, transport, stress and development. Significant changes to the profiles were obtained as a result of cold, heat or osmotic shock, demonstrating that, in stationary-phase cells, the phosphoproteome is dynamic. An initial comparative study indicated that at least 25 [(32)P]-labelled spots were also stained by Pro-Q Diamond, with apparently six additional phosphoproteins uniquely detected by Pro-Q.