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Comparative Study
, 89 (2), 73-80

The New Richmond HRR Pseudoisochromatic Test for Colour Vision Is Better Than the Ishihara Test

Comparative Study

The New Richmond HRR Pseudoisochromatic Test for Colour Vision Is Better Than the Ishihara Test

Barry L Cole et al. Clin Exp Optom.


Aim: The Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudoisochromatic test for colour vision is highly regarded but has long been out of print. Richmond Products produced a new edition in 2002 that has been re-engineered to rectify shortcomings of the original test. This study is a validation trial of the new test using a larger sample and different criteria of evaluation from those of the previously reported validation study.

Methods: The Richmond HRR test was given to 100 consecutively presenting patients with abnormal colour vision and 50 patients with normal colour vision. Colour vision was diagnosed using the Ishihara test, the Farnsworth D15 test, the Medmont C-100 test and the Type 1 Nagel anomaloscope.

Results: The Richmond HRR test has a sensitivity of 1.00 and a specificity of 0.975 when the criterion for failing is two or more errors with the screening plates. Sensitivity and specificity become 0.98 and 1.0, respectively, when the fail criterion is three or more errors. Those with red-green colour vision deficiency were correctly classified as protan or deutan on 86 per cent of occasions, with 11 per cent unclassified and three per cent incorrectly classified. All those graded as having a 'mild' defect by the Richmond HRR test passed the Farnsworth D15 test and had an anomaloscope range of 30 or less. Not all dichromats were classified as 'strong', which was one of the goals of the re-engineering and those graded as 'medium' and 'strong' included dichromats and those who have a mild colour vision deficiency based on the results of the Farnsworth D15 test and the anomaloscope range.

Conclusions: The test is as good as the Ishihara test for detection of the red-green colour vision deficiencies but unlike the Ishihara, also has plates for the detection of the tritan defects. Its classification of protans and deutans is useful but the Medmont C-100 test is better. Those graded as 'mild' by the Richmond HRR test can be regarded as having a mild colour vision defect but a 'medium' or 'strong' grading needs to be interpreted in conjunction with other tests such as the Farnsworth D15 and the anomaloscope. The Richmond HRR test could be the test of choice for clinicians who wish to use a single test for colour vision.

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