We aimed to compare the rate of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (NCSA) between type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic ones and also to reveal the associated risk factors. Type 2 diabetic subjects were selected from outpatient diabetes clinics and control subjects were selected from outpatient internal medicine clinics in the same hospital. The subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I included 68 subjects on insulin therapy and dietetic treatment, Group II included 80 subjects on oral anti-diabetic agents and dietetic treatment and Group III included 150 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic subjects. The rates of NCSA for Group I, II and III subjects were found to be 24 (35.3%), 11 (13.8%), and 16 (10.7%), respectively. Whereas there was no significant difference in NCSA positivity between Group II and Group III, a significant difference was found between Groups I and III (P < 0.01). Univariate analysis revealed that the following were significant risk factors for NCSA in our diabetic patients: insulin use, hospital admission within the last 6 months, being diabetic for more than 6 years, fasting glucose level above 111 mg/dl and antibiotic usage within the last 6 months. Furthermore, insulin use (odds ratio 3.32) and antibiotic usage within the last 6 months (odds ratio 5.75) were defined as significant risk factors for NCSA in diabetic subjects by the logistic regression method. Our results suggested that the rate of NCSA was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients who used insulin or antibiotics within the last 6 months.