Purpose: To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect and safety of latanoprost, travoprost given every evening, and the fixed combination dorzolamide + timolol (DTFC) given twice daily in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG).
Methods: This randomized, prospective, investigator-masked study has been conducted with 50 PXG patients. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: travoprost 0.004%, fixed combination of dorzolamide 2%+timolol 0.5%, or latanoprost 0.005% for 6 months. At baseline and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months of therapy, IOP (8 am, 10 am, 4 pm), blood pressures, and pulse rates were measured, and ophthalmologic examination was performed. The side effects were recorded at each visit.
Results: Forty-two of the 50 patients initially enrolled completed this study. Withdrawn patients included one (latanoprost) for lack of efficacy, five (three travoprost, one latanoprost, one DTFC) for adverse events, and two (one latanoprost, one DTFC) for loss of follow-up. Each of the three drugs considerably reduced the IOP in PXG cases throughout the 6 months. Mean IOP reduction at 6 months was -9.3+/-2.9 mmHg in the travoprost group, -8.2+/-1.2 mmHg in the latanoprost group, and 11.5+/-3.3 mmHg in the DTFC group. Comparing the groups, DTFC is more effective than latanoprost and travoprost in lowering IOP (p<0.05). There was no difference between travoprost and latanoprost. The most common treatment-related adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia. Intensity of ocular hyperemia was greater in the travoprost group compared with the latanoprost and DTFC groups (p<0.05). There were no significant effects on systemic safety parameters.
Conclusions: The results demonstrated that DTFC is more effective in reducing IOP than latanoprost and travoprost. Latanoprost and travoprost had similar ocular hypotensive effects in patients with PXG. All three drugs were well tolerated; there were fewer ocular side effects attributable in the latanoprost group.