High myopia and congenital myopathy with partial pachygyria in cutis laxa syndrome

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):190-4. doi: 10.1177/112067210601600134.


Purpose: Several types of inborn errors of the O-glycan biosynthesis are known, leading to clinically very distinct phenotypes. Children with O-mannosyl glycan biosynthesis defects commonly present as a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy with decreased alpha-dystroglycan staining, congenital eye anomalies, and brain migration defects. Alpha-dystroglycan is an O-mannosylated glycoprotein with additional mucin type O-glycans.

Methods: Based on overlapping clinical features with O-mannosyl glycan defects, especially with muscle-eye-brain disease, the authors performed a muscle biopsy in a child with severe congenital hypotonia, high myopia, partial pachygyria, mental retardation, cutis laxa, and an inborn error affecting the biosynthesis of both mucin type O-glycans and N-linked glycans.

Results: The histology showed no signs of muscle dystrophy, but a mild myopathy with slight increase in the muscle fiber diameter variability and type I fiber predominance. No significant decrease in the alpha-dystroglycan staining was detected; therefore, in spite of the phenotypic similarities the authors could not confirm the role of abnormal dystroglycan in the etiology of the muscle weakness and the developmental anomalies.

Conclusions: High myopia, muscle weakness, and cortical neuronal migration abnormalities are common in disorders of O-mannosylation and also observed in the authors' patient. However, compared to the severe generalized defect observed in mannosyl glycan defects, in this child the cerebral white matter and cerebellum were spared, and no muscle dystrophy could be confirmed. This is the first description of high myopia in cutis laxa syndrome in combination with congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple*
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics*
  • Cerebral Cortex / abnormalities*
  • Consanguinity
  • Cutis Laxa / genetics*
  • Female
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Muscular Diseases / congenital*
  • Mutation
  • Myopia / genetics*
  • Polysaccharides / genetics
  • Syndrome


  • Polysaccharides