Comparative study of PSMA expression in the prostate of mouse, dog, monkey, and human

Prostate. 2006 Jun 15;66(9):903-10. doi: 10.1002/pros.20413.


Background: Intraprostatic PSMA targeted prodrugs/protoxins are under development in our laboratory. Future toxicologic studies of these therapies require identification of animal models that express PSMA within the prostate.

Method: PSMA enzymatic activity and protein expression was determined. PSMA expression in the prostates of mouse, dog, and monkey were compared to humans by real-time PCR analysis.

Results: No substrate hydrolysis was observed in dog or monkey prostate homogenates. Monkey prostate was negative for PSMA protein expression. No significant PSMA mRNA levels were detected by real time PCR in mouse, dog, or monkey prostate tissue compared to PSMA negative tissues.

Conclusions: PSMA is not expressed in any significant amount in the prostates of mouse, beagle dog, or macaque monkeys in this study but is expressed in high levels by human prostate. These non-human species, therefore, are not suitable toxicologic models to assess prostate damage from PSMA-activated intraprostatic prodrug/protoxin therapies.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Surface / analysis*
  • Antigens, Surface / genetics*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dogs
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology*
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / analysis*
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Prostate / chemistry*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Toxicity Tests


  • Antigens, Surface
  • RNA, Messenger
  • FOLH1 protein, human
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II