Occurrence of sulfonamide antimicrobials in private water wells in Washington County, Idaho, USA

Chemosphere. 2006 Sep;64(11):1963-71. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.029. Epub 2006 Feb 23.


Samples from six private wells formerly used as sources for drinking water by the residents of Washington County (Weiser, Idaho) were collected to assess the impact of a nearby confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) on the quality of the local groundwater. All six samples were found contaminated by two veterinary antimicrobials, sulfamethazine (at concentrations from 0.076 to 0.22 microg/l) and sulfadimethoxine (at concentrations from 0.046 to 0.068 microg/l). These groundwater samples also contained elevated concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Three of the sampled wells have nitrate levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water, with nitrate concentration as high as 39.1mg/l. All but one well showed nitrate, which instead contained ammonium at 1.22 mg/l. Analysis of the nitrate and ammonium in these samples by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry indicated delta(15)N characteristic of an animal or human waste source. Results from this study underscore the role of CAFO as an important source of antibiotic contamination of groundwater.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / analysis*
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Idaho
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Sulfadimethoxine / analysis*
  • Sulfamethazine / analysis*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
  • Water Supply / analysis*


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Sulfadimethoxine
  • Sulfamethazine