Pathogen recognition and innate immunity

Cell. 2006 Feb 24;124(4):783-801. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015.


Microorganisms that invade a vertebrate host are initially recognized by the innate immune system through germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of PRRs, including Toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic receptors, recognize distinct microbial components and directly activate immune cells. Exposure of immune cells to the ligands of these receptors activates intracellular signaling cascades that rapidly induce the expression of a variety of overlapping and unique genes involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Animals
  • Cell Wall / immunology*
  • Cell Wall / metabolism
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Cytoplasm
  • Drosophila
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / physiology
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology
  • Models, Biological
  • RNA Helicases / metabolism
  • RNA, Double-Stranded
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • RNA, Double-Stranded
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • RNA Helicases