Traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth. Part 1. An epidemiological study of 216 intruded permanent teeth

Dent Traumatol. 2006 Apr;22(2):83-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00421.x.


An epidemiological study of traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth was performed on 216 teeth in 151 patients treated over a 50-year period at a major trauma center in Denmark (Copenhagen). This analysis showed that intrusion of permanent teeth was of rare injury only affecting 1.9% of traumatic injuries involving permanent teeth. The main etiologic factor appeared to be falling which resulted in axial impacts on maxillary or mandibular teeth. The most common injury patterns were intrusion without additional injuries (33.5%) and intrusion with crown fractures (60.5%). A few cases were combinations of intrusion and either crown/root-fractures or root fractures (6%). Most often one tooth was intruded (46.3%), followed by two teeth (32.4% ) and three or more teeth (21.3%). The majority of intruded teeth were displaced 2-8 mm. The age group of 6-12 years of age was most frequently involved and boys appeared to experience intrusion injuries more frequently than girls, and at an earlier age. Maxillary central and lateral incisors are the primary victims of intrusions and this seems to be identical to other trauma types and is possibly related to the known exposure to impacts of maxillary incisors. The reliability of clinical findings, such as lack of mobility (81.8%), metallic percussion tone (72.5%), and no pain to percussion (66%) was reasonably high, whereas a radiographic feature such as the obliteration of the periodontal ligament space appeared to be only a partly reliable diagnostic tool (52%).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Accidental Falls / statistics & numerical data
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gingiva / injuries
  • Humans
  • Incisor / injuries
  • Male
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Tooth Crown / injuries
  • Tooth Fractures / epidemiology
  • Tooth Injuries / classification
  • Tooth Injuries / epidemiology*
  • Tooth Resorption / epidemiology
  • Tooth Root / injuries
  • Tooth Socket / injuries
  • Wound Healing / physiology