Traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth. Part 2. A clinical study of the effect of preinjury and injury factors, such as sex, age, stage of root development, tooth location, and extent of injury including number of intruded teeth on 140 intruded permanent teeth

Dent Traumatol. 2006 Apr;22(2):90-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00422.x.


A prospective study of 140 intruded permanent teeth was done to evaluate the following healing complications: pulp necrosis (PN), root resorption (surface, inflammatory and replacement resorption) (RR) and defects in marginal periodontal healing (MA). These complications were related to various preinjury and injury factors. Age appeared to be related to all three healing complications in that patients younger than 12 years had the lowest complication rate. Stage of root formation at the time of the injury was very strongly related to PN and MA, with immature root formation (i.e. incomplete root formation or completed root formation with wide open apex) having better prognosis than more mature root development. Lateral incisors showed significantly more defects in MA, a finding possibly explained by the observation that lateral incisors were more often involved in multiple intrusions compared to other teeth and noting that multiple intrusions had a significantly higher frequency of MA. An associated crown fracture with exposed dentin resulted in more frequent PN, a finding possibly related to bacterial invasion through dentinal tubules into an ischemic pulp. The presence of a gingival laceration added to both PN and MA. The extent of intrusion (in mm) showed some relation to both RR with intrusion 1-3 mm having the lowest frequency of RR, whereas PN and MA showed no significant relation to the extent of intrusion. Finally, multiple adjacent intruded teeth were more frequently involved in a significantly greater loss of interproximal marginal bone (MA) than single intrusions. In conclusion, the relationship between healing complications and preinjury and injury factors could generally be explained by better healing possibilities in teeth with immature root formation. A possible explanation for that could be the softer bone surrounding the tooth, whereby trauma to the periodontium might be diminished.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alveolar Process / injuries
  • Child
  • Dental Pulp Necrosis / etiology
  • Dentin / injuries
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gingiva / injuries
  • Gingival Diseases / etiology
  • Humans
  • Incisor / injuries
  • Incisor / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odontogenesis / physiology
  • Root Resorption / etiology
  • Sex Factors
  • Tooth Apex / physiopathology
  • Tooth Crown / injuries
  • Tooth Fractures / complications
  • Tooth Fractures / therapy
  • Tooth Injuries / classification
  • Tooth Injuries / complications*
  • Tooth Injuries / therapy
  • Tooth Root / physiopathology
  • Wound Healing / physiology